Every healthy economy goes up and down in cycles, and it does not indicate any particular threats. Nevertheless, global crises often repeat as well and bring huge discomfort alongside. Black Monday of 1987, the Asian financial crisis of 1977, the stock market crash of 2008 – issues like these come and go every decade. While stronger economies recover from the crisis in a couple of years, developing ones only exacerbate their condition. Many developing economies (besides skyrocketing Asian markets) show little progress and get stuck in debts given by IMF and the World Bank.
Besides the domestic monetary and fiscal policies that may drag markets down, there are a couple of international reasons behind the recurring crises. The monetary hegemony strengthens global currencies such as the dollar or euro, but it can destabilize smaller currencies. The hegemony of dollar forces developing countries to submit to the rules of the Washington Consensus. Emerging economies are supposed to submit to neo-liberalism prescribed by the Washington-based economists that stimulate the reduction of the role of government in the economy. Not all countries can benefit from that. Adopting of the euro has played a low-down trick with Greece that is stuck in debts completely unable to pay back.
Some economists believe that the Washington Consensus produces the so-called failed-state syndrome. Developing countries cannot rise to the level of China or India using the Consensus, instead, they have to rely on open markets to stabilize their economy. In the age of globalization, we have to rely on the main players in the global economy. But we still have to keep domestic industries competitive to curb all processes that lead to yet another crisis.
Different risks associated with nurses and what measures can be taken by medical institutions to insure that all nurses are safe when working
Safety in the workplace is especially urgent for those working in healthcare. Their environment is constantly full of stressors that can seriously undermine their health. Working with contagious diseases and heavy equipment, nurses are especially vulnerable to get infected by patients or get hurt by machines. The outcomes of injured nurses are negative for everyone – patients do not get the necessary care and employers have a shortage of staff in the clinic.
Shift work and long hours are the first factors to make medical staff ill. People usually ignore a lack of sleep and get inattentive and weak during their shifts. Productivity decreases and nurses risk injuring themselves or patients by accident. In the long run, lack of sleep helps to develop chronic illnesses that may force the worker to retire earlier. The best strategy to cope lack of sleep is cutting working hours to 12 per day and 60 per week.
Lifting heavy objects is an everyday responsibility of nurses, and many of them cannot avoid musculoskeletal injuries. Practitioners frequently develop back and neck pain because of constant standing or moving abruptly. It would be better for clinics to have a couple of nurses who are physically capable to lift heavy objects so that everyone else does not need to do it. Nevertheless, these group of risks cannot be entirely eliminated in medical establishments.
Though nurses can ignore it at the first time, accidental needlesticks are the most dangerous type of injury in the hospitals. It is an easy way to get infected with hepatitis, HIV, and other life-threatening viruses. Safe needle devices have been developed to reduce the risks of making injections or blood tests for the staff. But still, the safety of nurses greatly depends on their attentiveness in the first place.
Nursing is not a specific type of medicine but rather practices that stabilize the patient’s health with the help of drugs and physical procedures. Some experienced nurses can diagnose patients themselves and prescribe the necessary treatment that may include traditional as well as complementary medicine. The choice of medicine is up to the practitioner who decides which treatment suits the person best.
Complementary practices have got recognition of numerous primary care providers who eagerly prescribe herbal treatments to their patients. Even if the remedy lacks clinical trials supporting its efficiency, doctors may prescribe complementary medicine that works well with their patients. In most cases, doctors do not stop on alternative practices and use them to complement traditional drugs.
It appears that complementary and alternative practices vary dramatically, some of them being utterly fraudulent. Nurses shall carefully evaluate potential benefits of every substance not to waste the patient’s time and make the best decision for each patient individually. Sometimes alternative medicine is highly recommended when traditional drugs are incompatible with each other. And sometimes it is a waste of time or just experiments of poorly-qualified healthcare providers.
Nurses shall obviously discuss complementary options with their patients. Not all people understand what is complementary therapy and how it is different from alternative medicine. It is essential that the patient had a positive idea of complementary treatment, otherwise it would not bring a good result.
The demand for advanced practice nurses has grown due to the shortage of physicians and the excess of chronic conditions. Today, it is not enough for a nurse to assist the doctor. Advanced practice nurses engage in leadership models that allow to educate staff nurses and empower them to provide help in areas where people cannot access a physician. Not all hospitals can allow themselves plenty of nurses and as many doctors. That is why nurses gradually cease to be assistants without any particular decision-making rights.
Taking into account the difficulty to access a health care provider, telemedicine is gaining popularity. It allows nurses to track the patient’s condition and work with those in intensive care units. There are bedside nurses who physically take care of the patients. They are supervised by tele-ICU nurses. Such a cooperation provides better care without transportation of emergency patients to the place where a specialist is available. Today is the time for more experienced nurses to make teams and provide help to everyone who needs it.
A distinct feature of a present-day nurse is their broad specialization that takes off the necessity to visit a range of specialists with a narrow qualification. Taking responsibilities of general practitioners, nurses cut the expenditures on transportation and quality healthcare that is very desirable for patients with chronic conditions and the elderly.
Both nurses and doctors are essential workers for hospitals. Their responsibilities differ, and neither of them can function without the other. There are different types of nurses as well as doctors, and the distinction is sometimes very subtle. An advanced practice nurse, for example, can make a prescription as well as a doctor. Any other nurses are also called staff nurses, and they assist doctors when conducting tests and manipulations.
Among doctors, we differentiate primary care physicians also called general practitioners and specialists of various departments, such as dentists, surgeons, psychiatrists etc. Neither of them can work with health issues beyond their field. Nurses, on the other hand, can work across different wards. Their task is to prepare patients and equipment for testing and to supply doctors all the instruments. If doctors are a brain center that makes decisions and takes responsibility for putting a diagnosis, nurses are hands of the doctor.
Practically, nurses are treated as doctor’s subordinates because physicians usually tell nurses what shall be done. Nevertheless, a licensed nursing staff knows their quite well, and experienced advanced practice nurses can give a good piece of advice to young doctors. The difference in salaries is quite remarkable though. An average staff nurse earns about $50,000 annually, while the salary of an advanced practice nurse is as high as $150,000. The salary of general practitioners is close to that of the advanced practice nurse except for surgeons who usually earn $100,000 more than that.
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